Periodontology (Gum Diseases)

The specialty of dentistry dealing with the sensitive tissues around the teeth is called periodontology. Problems of teeth that occur in these tissues for different reasons are also called ‘periodontal disorders’.

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What is Periodontology (Gum Diseases)?

The specialty of dentistry dealing with the sensitive tissues around the teeth is called periodontology. Problems of teeth that occur in these tissues for different reasons are also called ‘periodontal disorders’.

Periodontal problems, which are not very common in children, are more common in adults and cover more than 70% of the problems that cause tooth loss. However, as in all diseases, early diagnosis in gum diseases is extremely important in terms of treating the disease in a simple way.

It is very important for the prevention of periodontal diseases or the treatment of the developing disorder, in terms of not having any problems of eating in patient’s future life after the treatment process. Foods that are not chewed well during nutrition adversely affect the functioning of the digestive system.

What Causes Periodontal Disorders?

The primary cause of gum diseases is bacterial plaque. In addition to bacterial plaques, side factors such as smoking, some routine diseases in the body, constantly used medications, stress-related conditions and nutritional disorders are among the important factors that negatively affect gum health. In dental or gum treatments, the treatment process should be started by considering the diseases such as blood pressure, diabetes and heart that are constantly experienced in the body. The factors that cause periodontal disorders can be examined as follows;

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    Effects of Smoking on Periodontal Disorders

    Smoking causes a decrease in the general working capacity of the body, as well as negatively affects the health of teeth and gum. Chemical products used excessively in the manufacture of tobacco-containing substances such as cigarettes and cigars cause inflammation of the gums in a short time.

    Effects of Pregnancy, Menstruation and Menopausal Periods on Dental Health

    Pregnancy, menstruation and menopausal periods, which change the entire hormone balance of the body, cause many changes in the human body. In these special periods, which cause changes in many organs and tissues of the body, dental health also requires extra care. Otherwise, teeth and dental health will be damaged during these periods.

    Systemic Diseases and Gum Health

    Diseases such as diabetes, blood pressure and heart are among the systemic diseases. These diseases affect dental health negatively and also create negative situations during the treatment process. This is because such systemic diseases impair the body’s immune system. In addition to the health problems they experience, diabetes patients experience the most distress from oral and dental diseases.

    Due to their diseases, the mouth area constantly dries, burns, and they experience loss of sensation in the tongue papillae on the tongue organ, which has the sense of taste. In addition, the risk of inflammatory infection in these patients is very high. All of these conditions trigger periodontal diseases and make treatment difficult. Diabetes patients experience oral and dental health problems more intensely and severely than other healthy periodontal patients, and wound healing may take longer than other people.

    Continuously Used Medications

    Medications that people use throughout their lives due to certain and permanent disorders such as sugar and blood pressure have negative effects on dental and dental health, just like smoking. In addition to these medications, birth control pills, all kinds of medications used by asthma patients, epilepsy medications, depression medications, medications used for heart and blood pressure balance, blood thinners and medications containing all kinds of cortisone substances adversely affect oral health and dental and gum health.

    Negative Effects of Stress on Dental Health

    The glands secreted by the body during stress have negative effects on dental and oral health. Likewise, when people unknowingly tighten their jaw structures during stress, the tooth structure and gum, which are exposed to force, are also badly affected by this situation.

    Effects of Inadequate and Unhealthy Nutrition on Dental Health

    When foods that are not rich in vitamins and minerals are consumed, operating systems of the body and oral and dental health may be adversely affected. Malnutrition is an important factor leading to periodontal disorders. If the necessary care is not taken after consuming foods with much sugar, chocolates, tea and coffee, which damage the dental floor, that would pose a great danger in terms of dental health.

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      How Is Periodontal Treatment Performed?

      Gum diseases diagnosed in the early stages are mostly treated without the need for surgical operation. The medications used in these treatments are usually in the direction of reducing the inflammation that causes blood accumulation in the tooth roots. In addition to reducing the inflammation, cleaning of the teeth and gum is performed and dental cleaning is provided.

      Decays and plaques are treated in the mouth, if any. However, periodontal disorders that are noticed late require surgical intervention. Intraoral general care is performed before surgical interventions.

      Surgical methods used in periodontal diseases are as follows;

      Subgingival Curettage

      It is a surgical method applied in diseases that do not respond to early diagnosis treatments. The tooth roots, which are anesthetized by applying local anesthesia, are cleaned from inflammation and the dental plaques in the lower part of the gum are cleaned.

      Flap Surgery

      It is the last treatment to be performed in the later stages of periodontal diseases. As in other procedures, in the flap operation, the complainant area of the patient is anesthetized with local anesthesia. The gum and roots are elevated and the bone in which the tooth structure settles is opened. The area covered with inflammation is cleaned of the bone structure, tooth roots are corrected, and if necessary, the bending in the bone structure is corrected.

      Flap surgery is mostly preferred in patients with completely impaired bone structure. When the bone is almost gone and destroyed, structures such as bone grafts and membranes that can replace the real bone are applied.

      Healing Process After Surgical Intervention in the Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

      There are some points that people who have undergone periodontal surgery for oral and dental health should pay attention to after the surgery. It is possible to list them as follows: You should not eat or drink anything before the effect of the local anesthesia applied during the operation, while any operation in the mouth is not correct, cold application should be made around the cheeks to help relieve pain and ache.

      This application will relieve the person’s pain in mouth and prevent swelling of the wounds. Cold application should be performed at 5-minute intervals. After the surgery, mouth should not be rinsed with any drink or medication mixture. Spitting should not be done. Because the element of saliva is necessary in the formation of clots, which are necessary for the healing of wounds.

      Partial bleeding may occur in mouth for one or two hours after the operation. Depending on the intensity of the bleeding, blood-stained saliva should not disturb the patient. In continuing bleeding, a tampon with sterile gauze can be applied. In case of ongoing bleeding despite the procedures, your dentist should be consulted.

      After the operation, the dentist should use the medications prescribed by the dentist regularly. It should be used especially until the antibiotics are finished. In addition to the prescribed medications, the use of aspirin and similar blood thinners should be avoided.

      What are the Post-Operative Actions?

      Although not observed in every operation, some discomforts such as extreme sensitivity, pain and swelling may occur after the operation. These complaints may continue for two days after the operation. On the third or fourth day they begin to decrease gradually. Post-operative bruises heal in a week at the earliest.

      To reduce the risk of inflammation and bleeding after the operation, it is necessary to stay away from tobacco products such as cigarettes. Tobacco products cause serious problems, especially in patients who have undergone bone grafting and tooth extraction. The areas where bone grafts are applied begin to swell due to inflammation related to smoking. Bleeding sensitivity starts. All these cause the patient to experience severe pain.

      Consuming extremely hot and extremely cold foods should be avoided for about a week after the operation. Brushing is not applied in the treated tooth area for a week after the surgery. Other areas may be carefully brushed. For the hygiene of the surgical area, mouthwash is used with the medication recommended by the dentist to be applied twice a day.

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        What are Care Procedures?

        Mouthwash should be performed about 10 minutes after mouth cleaning. Food should not come into contact with the mouth, which is hygienically cleaned with mouthwash, for 30 minutes. The use of mouthwash should be stopped when the dentist recommends after the routine post-operative follow-up.

        After the operation, it should be checked approximately 7 days later

        After the operation, pressure is applied on the wound for half an hour with sterile gauze. Although it is thought that the mouth is completely healed after a month or so, in fact the wounds may not be fully healed. For this reason, the operation area should be controlled by making appointments with the dentist performing the surgery at routine intervals, and these appointments are of importance.

        Before & After

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          FAQ

          How can periodontal diseases be prevented?

          Periodontal diseases can be prevented by keeping the mouth healthy with regular oral care at the maximum level. In addition, smoking causes necrosis, which in turn causes periodontal disorders.

          What causes bleeding gum?

          The main cause is plaque accumulating on the gum line. When plaque hardens into tartar, it causes bleeding and a more advanced disease of the gum and jaws known as periodontitis.

          What is chronic gum disease?

          It is a serious gum infection. It damages the soft tissue around the teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to serious osteoporosis problems.

          What is aggressive gum disease?

          Periodontitis is a disease in which the disease progresses aggressively and destructively. The body may not respond to the treatment for this disease and may need to be supported with antibiotic treatment.

          What does periodontal aesthetics mean?

          Also known as gingival aesthetics. It is the treatment to bring the gum to an even level and to remove this excessive gum in people whom gum appears more than normal.

          Does tartar come back after tartar removal?

          This is a factor that depends on personal oral care. Without regular brushing and flossing, tartar comes back.

          What causes receding gum?

          Neglecting teeth and gum care, genetic factors, bone diseases occuring at that period are the biggest causes.

          Do gum diseases impair general health?

          Yes. Especially recent researches turns out that bacteria and inflammation in the mouth are also linked to other problems, such as heart attacks and dementia. It may also increase the risk of complications of many diseases (stroke and diabetes, etc.).